CERN has taken the first step towards a new 100-kilometer accelerator

The European Nuclear Research Laboratory, known internationally by CERN, has adopted a new update of its research strategy. It also works with the possibility of both accelerators by a hundred kilometers.

The LHC is fastest these days, but its active life is far from over. expect him to drive for many years of operation. Due to the large number of large experiments, physicists have to grind what comes after them.

The debate has lasted for years, but in recent days has shifted considerably, it would still be just a formal step. The European organization CERN, which is the driving force of experimental research in this area for the rest of the world, has issued a new strategy for the coming years. You can find a basic, short version of the document on this page.

The direction in it is not surprising: according to him, physics in the future needs to go in speed, not the LHC. As a result, it should be able to observe breeding in terrestrial environments in extreme conditions (ie in the event of high energy intakes), it has not yet been possible.

Sure and uncertain

The strategy is not a fully binding document, it is a matter of the physical community. It is a preparatory document that deals only conceptually with, for example, the technical and financial aspects of the project, which are described in it.

Therefore, it does not contain a serious full, the future of a few five years can be described in relatively certain words.

Peter Higgs autor (

Peter Higgs, author (and more precisely one of the authors) of the theory, which predicts the existence of a boson named after him, at the ATLAS detector on the LHC accelerator

Within its framework, the number of names that scientists will accelerate during operation should increase sharply. The size of the accelerator itself will not change, it will still be in the same circular tunnel 27 kilometers long, but the upgrade will undergo both a number of devices on the LHC itself and on individual detectors, in which the process itself changes (and for their needs the LHC station accelerates).

The improved LHC is being prepared, fully worked on in 2023, and with new performance it should be operational by the end of 2027 (possibly later, also due to the underlying cause of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic). The device varies in many, from the mic elements on the individual detectors, through the right in the system of accelerated and injected proton beams into the circuit and after changing the geometry of the beams of these rods to optimize the number of beams.

Simply put: collisions in detectors as a result will not occur with all energies, there will be significantly more of them (and detectors should be able to handle them faster and more accurately). High Luminosity The LHC should collect about ten quarters more data during the operation than the original LHC, to physicist Tom Davdek from the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics in Prague, who participated in the preparation of the European strategy of physicists.

The operation of the upgraded LHC is expected to end in 2038. And in essence, this milestone is the focus of a new strategy for European physics. After this date, the document presented several monch scenes: The change does not fully exclude the day, to Tom Davdek. So how are the possibilities?

cut and bread

The strategy recommends developing various aspects of physics, but between high-priority wheels and especially the construction of other, powerful ones. The document specifically mentions three projects that can be divided into two groups.

In the first five, two large liners (ie straight) accelerate with a length of several tons of kilometers. In the type of groups, the two circles are accelerated in an underground tunnel about 100 kilometers long, ie about three times the length of the LHC. The energy of the spray in one of them should be 100 TeV (teraelectronvolt) against about 14 TeV at the LHC.

It is generally estimated that straightforwardly, liner will not eventually be at CERN. A job called ILC (International Linear Collider) could eventually emerge in Japan with a significant financial contribution from the local government (but with the participation of European physicists). This possibility has been talked about for years, but the bag is still open. According to the unofficial ones, initially from the Japanese physical community could be clear by the end of the year.

The ILC should, of course, be used yesterday, for example, it would be suitable for the thoroughly proven property of the Higgs boson. It should be able to produce burdens with such energy that more than one is produced in the LHC. And because it should speed up simple and light masses (specifically electrons and positrons) than the LHC, there should be less waste in it and the results should be easier to record and record.

If Japan took on a significant volume as a linear accelerator, CERN would have its hands free to build a large circular accelerator, which is now known as the FCC (Future Circular Collider).

The required 100-kilometer tunnel for it would undoubtedly be created in the vicinity of CERN’s laboratories, ie in the vicinity of the plant, however different it would be more expensive and complicated. In the same tunnel, two accelerators would gradually stand, as it was in the case of the 27 km tunnel, where the LHC is today.

The strategy of the assumption that it would be a device that would be strongly inspired not only by the technical side, but thus by the process of the establishment of the LHC, will therefore be twofold. In the tunnel where the LHC now operates, the LEP (Large Electron-Positron Collider) operated rapidly between 1989 and 2000.

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The design of the location of the tunnel for the consideration of hundreds of kilometers is promptly initiated by the FCC, with its minor images in / under the CERN Center. It is not an accident, the individual accelerators are interconnected, forming a kind of cascade in which they accelerate gradually.

As in the considered linear accelerators, electrons and their antimatter counterparts, ie positrons, collided in it. In the successive LHC, particles (protons) are struck, which means that the LHC does not accelerate its straight line between the proposed linear ones. The difference between the two types is a number, one very obvious is in energy: protons, due to their weight, can quickly supply a few days of energy.

The LHC’s predecessor, the LEP, for example, did not have enough energy to discover the Higgs boson. Not that he wasn’t successful, he experimentally verified and refined a whole range of physical knowledge, some of which had been known for a long time, but the discovery of the Higgs boson missed him a little.

Should the generation of circular ones be built at CERN quickly, the strategic document proposes as one of the options that this procedure be repeated. First, electron-positrons should be operated rapidly in the tunnel, then accelerated (ie the so-called hadron, which we know from the name LHC – Large Hadron Collider).

The electron-positron accelerator, similarly to the linear accelerator of the LHC, should serve, for example, as a factory for the Higgs bosons, ie to discover this, it was discovered, but it was still relatively unknown. For example, how to behave towards other sticm (for example, the so-called fermions, ie, for example, electrons).

To emu will it be?

Thus, although at least one scene is a repeat of the LHC’s construction process, in one important respect the situation is different: today no one dares to predict whether and how the discovery could be made more quickly. Before the launch of the LHC, no one doubted that the LHC discovery of the Higgs boson, which had been predicted several decades earlier, explains Tom Davdek.

Today such an insight of mistakes. With the discovery of the Higgs boson, the theory known as the so-called standard model was concluded. This simplified time explains the origin, form and breeding of all known stables. The results of the calculation of the Standard model with great accuracy correspond to me less. This was also shown by the discovery of the Higgs boson: theorists were able to experiment or what the stars roughly look like, and they could build an accelerator that could find it (they had only hope, because the theory could not predict the longest: what mass the Higgs boson has) .

Only with the Standard Model do we not stand up when trying to understand the whole universe. For example, it does not explain the nature of the so-called dark matter or gravity. It is undoubtedly a very fast theory, but it is so perfectly complete and closed that it does not indicate in which direction to go.

In physics, there are a number of even more wild hypotheses, which are figuratively represented by the Standard Model, fully for some of the errors of experimental evidence. The LHC was able to rule out a number of these conjectures by not discovering the attitudes and phenomena that these hypotheses presented.

But full of errors evidence positive evidence for something extra. A very good clue would be the discovery of a newcomer that the Standard Model does not predict and that goes beyond it. At the same time, the discovery of some unusual and inexplicable breeding heritage would help.

There is nothing like this in the LHC results yet. From a physical point of view, we are in an extremely interesting situation, because at this moment we don’t really know what we might find in further experiments, to Tom Davdek.

The question is whether the excitement of uncertainty and curiosity of vdc will be shared by the governments and the public of the countries that the project has to pay for. According to CERN, the total price for the FCC should be more than 20 billion euros in day prices. It is still an estimate, a detailed financial analysis is yet to be made. How undoubtedly I am interested in such, but what is the result of the uncertain investment of the characters of the potential float, it will be seen.

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