series in the Florida Keys have agreed to release 750 million genetically engineered chambers. They help to help sweat the sweat of free relatives.
The British company Oxitec has been trying for more than 10 years to establish its hi-tech unit for the fight against the most dangerous infectious diseases: ventricles. The urge to rush behind him has now succeeded for the first time in the richest market in the world, in the United States.
The Florida council agreed to allow the company to release 750 million chambers from its lhns in 2021 and 2022 (here it is decided). They hope that their help can be very vigorously dreaming of sweat in the next generations, and thus reduce the transmission of such diseases as the Nile fever virus, denge, yellow fever and zika virus. Of course, in principle, the same procedure can be tied, for example, against malaria, which does not occur in Florida.
A defect to the grandson
Narrowing comics are very distant descendants of a male who was created as a member of a genetic manipulation laboratory in Oxford University in 2002.
They have simplified the erosion of genes so that they can only identify substances (tetracycline antibiotics) only with regular blight (the system is described in more detail in this work by Oxitec from 2007). The defect is ddin, so all the offspring of this male in prod quickly die. The vast majority of them (about 96 percent) should not get out of the larval study, so they will never hatch.
Deployment is carried out in such a way that they are given to the required numbers (in the first attempts it was millions, billions are considered in the future) and then released into the natural environment in such quantities that their number significantly strengthens the number of free males. This means that most of the next generation should be sentenced to death before dark, they will not be able to stab anyone.
This is not a new principle. At the same time, the release in large numbers of males can be sterilized, for example, by irradiation, because even they will not produce viable offspring, so the numbers of chambers should decrease. However, the Oxitec company wants to prove in practice that radiation (and other considered methods of chamber sterilization) are expensive and not just its process.
The process is not without flaws. Oxitec tries to release only males who do not suck blood and do not foam disease. Easily distinguishing the sex of millions and billions of chambers is not easy, and so mistakes occur. A few tenths of a percent of the leakage chambers in practical trials of ceramics. Practical experiments have nevertheless shown that if a male is planted with sufficient numbers, the impact on the sweats of this stinging insect in a given city can actually be significant.
For example, during the test for the headquarters of the Brazilian city of Juazeiro, the local population of mosquitoes fell by 95 percent. Similar results were achieved in other experiments, for example in Malaysia in 2009. By the way, the company surprised the proponents of the use of genetic manipulation in the fight against pathogenesis.
One inconvenience of such a woman’s population is its reach. Males have to be released into the wild regularly, otherwise they will recover again and the conditions will return to normal. The company therefore drank with the second generation of its Ptel Chamber (the company has the English term Friendly registered in this context as a trademark), which can be launched first in Florida and is referred to as OX5034 (the first generation was marked OX513A).
They have the same weakness, but limited so that it manifests itself only in females. The descendants of these chambers themselves, not the females. Again, this did not fully last, because only half of the offspring of the treated male were defective. In each generation he has defective males and many more females will survive. In the 10th generation, the defect should disappear completely. The results of the experiments do not suggest that in this case there is any danger of transferring the modified gene to the free population.
According to the model, the procedure has the advantage that maintaining a low state of the chamber should release a small artificial chamber and the whole process should be cheaper. The first 2nd generation of genetically modified chambers should be planted in Florida in five years.
Oxiteczkouku has been preparing in this other American state for many years. In 2016, a referendum took place at the same time as the presidential elections (we wrote about it here), which Oxitec still presents as a de facto victory, because most of the approximately 40,000 voters in Monroe County, where the test passed, agreed.
However, the company does not reveal that those who tried to touch the most voted in Key Haven County, where they could run, were against about two-thirds of the vote (400 out of 600 votes cast were against). And they eventually won, because in the original form, the experiment did not take place at all.
The newly approved attempt will work with it to change the second generation of chambers, their deployment was approved by the US Federal Council in May this year. Oxitec used the time to better explain to the public what exactly he wants to do (a number of their materials for the public are available from this site) and the company believes that he put nothing in the way of the test.
After Florida wants to put a similar test in Texas, there is still a chance to visit the city and city councils (federally allowed, but it is far from it).
Try it and give it
Even if Oxitec fails, something similar is attempted and will be attempted by other subjects. Genetic technology offers a number of ingenious tools to reduce the threat posed by chambers, not just sterilizing males.
For example, there is a debate about the fact that genes that make it possible to transmit malaria could be allowed to spread spontaneously. The proposed procedure uses a gene that mosquitoes in penet parasites, causing disease, ie colds. Vce o nm v naem starm lnku. It is also an idea, the use of this principle is also controversial among scientists.
Strong efforts on practical rush can use another principle, which avoids much genetic manipulation and reliance on competition. Due to the somewhat impractical examination of the microflora in the ventricle, it has been found that there are bacteria that can very much compete with the viruses that come.
Some bacteria, such as wolbachia, especially do not want their hosts to compete with competitors. These bacteria occur in a huge number of insect species, but in the species for hunting the most dangerous Aedes aegyptise are relatively rare. At the same time, those who have these bacteria in them are often more likely to carry the threat of viruses.
Thus, several projects were created, in the framework of which mlivypoutt komi infected with wolbachies would be introduced into the surroundings of human communities in very affected areas. The wild population could also benefit from prosperity (here we simplify a bit, the situation is a bit complicated).
It is assumed, and the preliminary results suggest it, see for example the test in California, that the use of wolbachi could be a promising way of regulating the populations. In addition, the procedure significantly simplifies the position from the point of view of practical use, because genetically modified organisms (sentence chambers) have to go through a much less stringent approval process in practically all countries of the world than unmodified organisms.