Saranata also suffered from echoes. Guess now perhaps how to turn off the threat

Saranata are usually solitary, inconspicuous. The scientists now drank to see why and how I was left to mourn the creatures that were left behind. And there is also a way to get rid of the problem that the pin hunter.

In recent years, we have witnessed the return of the famous biblical broom in the world, which is a bit like a fairy tale for a hunter from Central Europe. These are the nets of huge flocks of migratory saran (Locusta migratoria), in which surprisingly high speeds move billions of HV hungry individuals.

This summer is a very current pandemic. A huge number of grasshoppers this year are devastating the fields in eastern Africa and heating up food availability in Pkistno. Similar phenomena have in fact occurred in Europe in the past, but have disappeared from our continent in recent stalls. The last known large-scale invasion of migratory locusts in the Middle Ages took place on the lands and Moravia.

One sarane is not particularly dangerous. You would hopelessly miss it in the gardens. From time to time, however, such a saranata, which brings me more individually, changes its appearance, accumulates in one city and creates a flock, which then embarks on a beautiful journey. One such flock covers an area of ​​several kilometers and its total mass can reach several thousand tons.

For a long time, the experts shook their heads at what is a moving bond for the sarana, which allows them to leave the solitary lifestyle and go to the flock with the others. Many chemical substances were suspected, but the bottom of them did not end up being a tusk for a chemical signal to form a flock.

The old conspiracy was led by a team of dark scientists, led by Le Kang from the German Academy of Sciences. According to them, the critical signal is the pheromone 4-vinylanisole (4VA), known as 4-methoxystyrene, mentioned in a publication published in the prestigious journal Nature. It is an irresistible perfume for saranata. This pheromone can secrete saranata if you find that there are several other saranats in close proximity. To start the production of the 4VA pheromone, it is sufficient to meet three and five saranats.

It turned out that the pheromone affects both the solitary iaran saranata and the saranata in the flock. It works regardless of vk saranat and their sex. Pheromone 4VA then gave saranata from the surroundings, which join the emerging flock. Together, then excrete more and more pheromones, which saw more and more saranate. A feedback loop starts, which eventually creates a huge flock of saranate.

nsk tm researched several selected chemical substances, which were known to be secretively excreted. The researcher analyzed the breeding saranat in detail, monitored their electrophysiology, examined the structure of their receptors and performed experiments in the terrestrial. Their research eventually revealed that it was the first pheromone 4VA to act as a signal for the formation of a flock.

Can it be turned off?

But Kang’s darkness was not over. The researchers then studied in detail how sarane detects signals with 4VA molecules. They were able to identify the area of ​​the saranate tentacles that is responsible for detecting this pheromone, and then discovered the Or35 gene, which is necessary for the detection of the 4VA pheromone. When the researcher turned off the Or35 gene with the help of the popular genetic editor CRISPR / Cas9, they created a saranata that does not respond to the 4VA pheromone and does not create flocks.

This discovery offers several remarkable possibilities. One of them is a GM saranate that will not be able to respond to the 4VA pheromone and create a malignant flock. Their genes would then be quickly distributed among dal saranata by the method of so-called gene pull (even in ethin, the English term gene drive is more likely to be used). On the contrary, it allowed them to bet on the action of the 4VA pheromone and create chemical traps, into which it would be possible to paint and subsequently dispose of a large amount of saranate.

Kangv tm tested in the laboratory and in the tern that the 4VA pheromone really works as a bait. In both cases, they managed to calculate the amount of saranat. Kang admits that the method will need to be thoroughly tuned, before the experiment gets to practical applications. For now, however, they may appreciate that pheromone traps are very innovative and could be the first rapid application of their discovery.

Leslie Vosshall of the American Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior at Rockefeller University pointed out that, especially with the unpromising application of the discovery of the clustered pheromone saranate, a chemical substance could be found that could block the binding of pheromone molecules to the whole saranate receptor. According to Vosshall, such a chemical could become a chemical counterpart, which could be applied by saranatm sthovani. After such an intervention, they would again become mrumbly and bottomed saranata, which would spin to a solitary life.

Vosshall reminds us that some things about the 4VA jet pheromone are not entirely clear. We do not know, for example, whether the 4VA is the only factor that caused the formation of a flock of locusts. So we don’t know how the species saranat reacted to the pheromone 4VA. Kang is convinced that a genetically modified saranate migratory plant could be successful and more likely to address the problem of saranata. At the same time, however, he warns that such a project would require extensive, preferably international and thus long-term forces. Of course, the risks of such a project would be thoroughly assessed.

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