For 40 years he served in the US Army had an unarmed NR-1 nuclear-powered submarine. Her mission was shrouded in my weaving of the deepest secrets. Over the years of its deployment, the information associated with the wall was released and so the people connected with the project within the framework of the established mantinel revealed a lot.
Mal a jadern pichz
The initiator and driver of the whole project was the NR-1 nuclear submarine was Admirl Hyman George Rickover, the legendary father of the nuclear monarchy. For a long time, he basically had to keep his project under protection due to the constant increase in its budget, which in the context of the size of the submarine floated into astronomical vines. In just five years of development and construction, this submarine has swallowed almost 100 million US dollars. We don’t remember much, but then the dollar was much harder not today, it can’t be compared at all.
The idea to build the pioneer and research nuclear-powered submarine Rickover probably forged into a solid frame during one trip by plane in a dry November 1964. Otherwise, if you are not a pilot of a subject machine that takes care of its smooth flight, or a squadron (correct note: today You can also meet the pilots and you can even come across a flight attendant), who cook something, or use bags, you have a lot of time to think about different things. And you about small submarines.
About small special submarines that are used to explore the seabed and look for lost things like bomb atoms and the like. The limiting factor of the means then used for the mentioned elements was the lack of acne or reduced time of uninterrupted use due to the limited capacity of the battery to power the drive. The aircraft did not have time to pistol and Rickoverv assistant and expert dog prototypes and advanced technology Mark Forssell in front of the wheels to define the technical parameters for such a submarine with a heart in the form of a small nuclear reactor.
Soon, Admirl Rickover Forssell was convinced of the technical feasibility of the project, which required, above all, the development of a constantly refined, small and reliable nuclear reactor. So Rickover decided to build a submarine, gaining a few such high-ranking supporters and even Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States.
The general contractor for the ship became the General Dynamics Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut, which could boldly be awarded the unofficial title of court supplier of submarines US NAVY. The name NR-1 for the prepared submarine was chosen by sm pan admirl. NR meant Nuclear Research, and this modest unit was supposed to evoke that the submarine would be the first in a series of similar vessels (in the end it remained the only one, and if not by accident, it is so secret that we don’t know anything about it). Marked according to the established military nomenclature for nmon means NR-1 never received, because the service in the US NAVY was not officially enlisted.
In January 1966, something fell from the sky that could only confirm Rickover in the correctness of his ideas for building specially nuclear-powered submarines. After the collision of the B-52G bomber with the flying KC-135 tanker over the Spanish coast, three Mark 28RI vodka bombs fell out of the first machine, when one of them was blown into the sea by an open air into the walls of an unpacked brake pad. So it wasn’t even fun with those who ended up on the mainland. For one, it would be enough to drive a tractor, but for two there was an explosion of classic explosives and spreading of radioactive material around (tons of contaminated soil then Amerian had to take the ship home). The bomb fell into the moe was picked up after a big force of not more than two and pl msce after the incident. This was only possible thanks to the special mini-submarines Alvin and Aluminaut, but during the event, their very limited battery-powered operation had a negative effect on the nakedness.
The NR-1 submarine is waterproof. (25-01-1969)
NR-1: had a reactor, a hand and two tires on bie
The basis of the submarine’s dead mass was the pressure hull of the circular beam at both ends walking into the shape of a hemisphere. The pressure hull was welded from high-strength and at the time of the peaks of steel HY-80. It was used in the construction of large submarines. Because the NR-1 bag was to operate at three depths, this placed, among other things, demands on the quality of the welds and strict adherence to the geometry of the yarn with minimal deviations from the regular circular shape. In addition, Rickover dictated the need for handcuffs only the minimum necessary structural penetration through the pressure hull.
In front of the pressure hull, about a third of its length, there was a space for crew, work and rest. In addition to the control and display elements, there was also some electronics and, from this point of view, a simple part of the computer. The remaining two-thirds of the pressure hull space were set aside for a pressurized water nuclear reactor, a turbogenerator and related equipment.
On the top of the pressure hull was a submarine in (usable, of course, only when sailing on the surface) and a long walking lion. Two ship’s bolts on the wall were used to move forward / backward, and in combination with rudders and ballast tanks, basic maneuvers could be performed. Sophisticated maneuvering, or hitting a submarine over a certain surveyed city, was realized with the help of the so-called thruster. The thruster, of which the NR-1 had three (which is the number of bases), can be imagined as a tube with a propeller inside, the axis of the tube and the propeller overlapping. One pair of X-situated thrusters were on the floor and the other on the wall.
At the bottom of the pressure hull was fixed the st. It contained a retractable chassis consisting of two wheels with tires filled with alcohol, which were used to move the submarine in direct contact with the seabed. On the front of the key, the shoulder was situationally manipulated. In addition, there were two ballast spills made of chopped lead (2 x 4 tons), usable in case of emergency removal and lightening of the submarine.
The Sonar system had a resolution of 0.3 m at a distance of 180 meters and a resolution of 1.2 m at a distance of 730 m. The submarine was equipped with 16 special cameras (for poor lighting conditions) with online transmission to the door. The curiosity is the absence of a classical periscope, again due to the avoidance of further relatively large penetration of the pressure hull. At the bottom of the front of the pressure hull, there were three typical portholes (with them, with an observer’s talent, he spent a lot of time admirl Rickover, when he took part in the first test voyage).
Because they often wait far more than a long time, so let’s say that the hull pressure was 29.3 m long and 3.8 m in diameter, the length of the entire submarine was 44.4 m. The projected depth of the dive was 724 m, in fact much more that the crew tried several times against the will. The most interesting and somewhat surprising are the speed data, underwater the NR-1 could use its own propulsion to sail at a speed of only 6.5 km / h (3.5 knots) and at a level of 8.3 km / h (4.5 knots).
Simplified layout of the submarine NR-1
The submarine NR-1 could operate underwater without replacement and for 30 days, other sources then speak of a maximum of 27 days when the submarine is fully occupied (13 crews only). Of course, from a technical point of view, a nuclear submarine could be underwater, but it is disproportionately long compared to large nuclear submarines due to its first small size.
It is stated that operan vdr was due to the limited number of food carriers. But it will not be completely true, somehow always store energy-rich food somewhere and spread it out in pipes. The real weakness from the point of view of opera vdra is not mentioned, and it does not seem to the independent observer that it is a secret, not the whole submarine itself. The limiting factor was the size of the waste. It was stated that NR-1 was a design with a minimum of penetration and therefore did not have the ability to discharge waste under water.
A few vt about the judge
Practically throughout the development and construction of the NR-1, the first crew was ready for it. And he knows the way he wants, in short, the best of the best were chosen. These individuals not only had to be technically proficient, but they also had to have high psychological resilience. It is quite logical that the submarine has an indoor space, in the dark there is a threat of submarine disease.
In addition, some crew members underwent special training, such as diving, but inside the submarine, each crew member had to be able to represent any other member in his work. There was no difference between the officer and the rank of the ship on board, so the working atmosphere could not be compared at all with large rocket launchers or tons of submarines.
The crew had a maximum of tinct only in the maximum projected occupancy. Of these were the officers, and the remaining plates could be two civilian scientists. For a long time after commissioning there were, for example, extra people from the system vendor. Not only was the NR-1 fully occupied, for the full performance of some rounds was even an eight-day crew. We worked in eight-hour laughs, in the dark depths, of course, you don’t distinguish day and night. He slept freely on some kind of cavalry, the submarine commander usually folded to the floor behind the seats dicho set.
The new crew only trained in the city for a year directly on the submarine, and his colleague was only replaced by him. There were always interesting circumstances with the appointment of a new commander. The submarine who received such an offer did not know much about the NR-1 due to secrecy. Pesto accepted the tempting offer, because from the point of view of military career, it was better to command a small submarine not to hold the position of one of the officers on a large submarine.
In power and appreciation
Due to the low speed of the NR-1 sn usually operated an accompanying level. Its main wheel was to submarine the ropes into the city of current activity and after completing the mission to take it back to its home port. In addition, the accompanying ship was carried on board the necessary equipment, or it could be regenerated by a sudden and in health indisposed submarine and the like. Some actions took place in the framework of this group, when NR-1 and its accompanying team formed a part of such formations.
The role of supporting the NR-1 submarine was gradually promoted (from left): USS Kittiwake (ASR-13), USS Sunbird (ASR-15) and MV Carolyn Chouest.
Some claim to me that the funds swallowed by the design, production and operation of the NR-1 are seen as a waste. But on the other hand, it wants to see her mission. Moreover, such weights are quite pointless in terms of the confidentiality of some bowls. A number of military missions, some of which were pioneers, took place. At secret actions, the plow and rear rudders received an inconspicuous black star.
Probably one of the most common NR-1 missions took place for several months in 1971 in the Mediterranean. Plates of American and Soviet ships operated there, including submarines. The Americans were concerned when they learned that the Soviets had accurate information about the movements of their submarines in the Uritch areas. He did not ask to have an underwater detection device installed in strategic places in the Mediterranean, and NR-1 was supposed to look for it this round.
Outside and from a certain point of view, the funny story took place on 14 of 1976 during NATO Teamwork 76 military training. F. Kennedy. One F-14 Tomcat fighter, preparing to take off, suddenly fled, and with a frightened crew, she drove safely across the deck, and not anyone else went to sea. So the crew managed to go in front of the machine to catapult the deck, but they matured that time with their mouths open (most probably newspapers, which were driven aboard the aircraft carrier).
The first was that a modern long-range Phoenix air-to-air stela was fitted to the aircraft. They were monitored by the Soviet pion ship for the rest of the year, and what falls into the sea out of its own waters is found. In my sea, the missile was separated from the plane, which Amerian did not know yet, and of course they tried to catch both rare objects as soon as possible so that they would not fall into the hands of the Sovtm. They would probably deserve it for a few days star phod with MiG-25, which pistol in Japan. The Phoenix natst missile was fished by NR-1. She happened to be nearby by accident at the time of the exercises, so she was allowed to do so. Shortly afterwards, without the help of NR-1 (which only localized it beforehand), the eastern Tomcat was also caught.
The NR-1 had a great, albeit indirect, service to detect the crash of the Challenger space shuttle from 1986. She searched the Atlantic floor for its wreckage, many of which she picked up. This took place a year after the declassification of the NR-1. So let’s talk about the secret existence of the submarine and its technical unit, some military missions are still completely, even the walls shrouded in mystery.
The NR-1 bag provided great promise to both oceanographers and other researchers in the life or history of mankind. For example, in Stedomo, a large number of ancient ships were explored. Some of the scholars have literally taken their toll, as new knowledge reveals that they need to revise their previously published book.
The last NR-1 mission took place in 2008 and in the same year the submarine was deactivated. The walls were serotatory, some artifacts (in, rudder and propellers) are exhibited in the submarine museum in Groton.